Smoke is primarily a visible suspension of carbon particles in air normally caused by burning of substances. Smoke detector senses smoke only and must be connected to a fire alarm system control panel. Smoke detectors are a detection device only – not an alarm. Smoke alarm detects smoke and sounds an alarm. Smoke detectors are used in large buildings and commercial areas where as smoke alarms are found in private residences. Early developments in design of smoke alarm began in 1922 with observations by Greinacher and later by Walter Jaeger in 1930.Smoke alarms use basically two types of sensors to detect smoke either through ionization or through photoelectric methods. Smoke alarms may contain either or both methods.
Ionization smoke alarms were introduced in U.S in the mid 1950’s. These early models used 240 volts of AC to operation. Smoke alarms using photoelectric technology were introduced in the early 1960’s. Early smoke detectors require high voltage, continuous research of smoke alarms lead to the development of battery powered easily portable smoke alarms. These made an increase in the use of smoke alarms and easily installable in housing premises too. The most recent developments have made smoke detectors even smarter. These smarter smoke detectors can be easily monitored and are accessible from any place.
Smoke alarms helped to save thousands of lives in the United States since their introduction and extensive use during the past two decades (Istre, 2000). There is good news to know that there is at least one smoke alarm in the 90% of homes in the United States. Universal ﬁre-related damages result in more than 300,000 demises (Cooper, 2011). The U.S. Fire Administration reports stated that two thirds of the people who die annually in fires where smoke alarms are either not present or not working (Taylor, 2014).
In this project we design a microcontroller based smoke alarm which will continuously monitor and trigger an alarm for a significant amount of presence of smoke. This smoke alarm also contains an LCD monitor for visual alert as well as a WIFI module enabling to mobile monitoring.
Smoke alarms are the best innovation which help to reducing the rate of residential fire deaths (Frattaroli et al, 2016). Residential fires present threats to the public health and safety (Gielen,2014). The purpose of this study is to develop a circuit which is economical and reliable used to detect the smoke and activate an alarm.
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