1. The poles of knowledge are related to experience in that experience serves to bring out a connection of a particular meaning of an issue that has occurred in the past. The individual will therefore refer to the past so that he can bring out the truth of the matter. 2. The objects of knowledge are constituted in a manner in which they are integral because all these senses are in a position to distinguish various elements as either right or wrong e. g. the eye can determine whether what it has seen is right or wrong while the ear can select what to hear.
3. Intellect begins to function when the mind presents the reality in a distinct and a clear way so that truth can be said to have been exercised. 4. The animal intelligence is different from the human intelligence in that the animal intelligence cannot separate or unite concepts which are considered elements that make up logic. 5. A concept is a material that represents logic in its untrue or unfinished state while judgment is discerning the differences between some given forms of matter in a finished and a clear manner.
While concepts are incomplete and imperfect, judgments are complete and perfect thoughts that the individual’s mind will rest upon in making decisions. Whereas a judgment can deny or reaffirm some of subject matter, a concept denies or affirms it. The two aspects also differ in that while concept stands for a meaning of a certain issue; judgment is an expression of the concept. 6. Concept differs from a simple apprehension as an act because it does not affirm or deny and therefore becomes an incomplete and an imperfect act.
The reason why it does not represent a complete act is rest upon the mind not resting on this point and therefore needs to seek and get the real answer to the problem in question. 7. The image is different from the concept because an image can be expressed in form of the characteristics of the object in its material from that is its concreteness and the variable of the material while a concept is immaterial, constant, universal and abstract. 8. Judgment separates images by giving the distinction between one image and the other.
It therefore does not unite images but separates them in their form and differences. 9. It is possible for a vague image to be universal because an object in the mind which is represented as a concept has the property that it can be represented as universal, abstract and constant and therefore a vague object in the mind of an individual can be represented as universal. 10. Simple apprehension can be false because the mind has not yet registered any evidence of truth about the matter.
An example is when a person gives a word which has several meanings in a class. The minds of the students will revolve around all the meanings of the word but they will want to be told further some hint about the details of the issue and therefore they can establish the real meaning of the issue. Otherwise the issue would represent either false or true answers in the minds of the students. 11. In logic “notes” refer to the elements of complex meaning. 12. Comprehension of a concept refers to the articulation of notes in the mind of a person in the right order.
13. Comprehension relates with the essential definition in that comprehension is the coming up with the real meaning of an issue after definition as been done that is coming up with probable solutions. Initial definition therefore aids in comprehension. 14. “Specific property” differs from “descriptive characteristic” in that specific property is the act of giving the object the real meaning that it specifically fits while descriptive characteristics refers to the ability of logic to unite and separate the concepts. 15.
Extension is the property of an object in which a concept is represented in a combination of the real things which are actual and possible to be applied. Comprehension is the idea of the intellect knowing the meaning and essence of a particular object and expressing this meaning in a definition. 16. These two terms vary inversely because comprehension does not necessary refer to knowing the facts of the matter while extension means the real facts of the subject matter is really known and therefore the concept can be confidently represented.
17. A term refers to the concepts that do not have any significance when they are represented on their own while ‘syncategorematic words’ refer to the concepts that connote some particular issue when they stand on their own. 18. Universal is different from generality in that while universal means something that is widely accepted in a big region like the entire world, generality means a concept that is perceived in a particular person’s mind and it could be different from the perception of another person somewhere else.
19. a. Signification of terms Signification of the terms is the dividing of terms so that they meaning is affected. Examples include the use of the word “man” it can either have the meaning of masculine or it can be used to mean individuals regardless of their sex orientation. b. Supposition of terms Supposition of the terms refers to the terms in which a word stands; it does not represent the meaning of the term alone but also a proposition of the term.
An example is “Paul is short” this phrase indicates that the truth about Paul’s height is that he is short. 20. It’s important to study logic because it makes individuals to learn things from the truthful way. Logic often bases issues in a truthful manner and therefore if people followed logic then concepts can easily be inferred as correct and therefore problems solved easily.
Reference: Etienne Gilson, Knowledge as Understanding, the Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Chapter V, pp. 200-206
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