Nursing And Counseling Theory

Nursing And Counseling Theory

Just like other professions, nursing and psychological work are based on beliefs on established theories. Nursing theories are like a paradigm that guides the profession of nursing and helps nurses to care for their patients and improve nursing practice (Smith & Parker, 2015). Psychological theories, on the other hand, are a set of concepts that provides visualization for the understanding of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions of humans (Borghi & Fini, 2019). This assignment aims at highlighting one nursing theory and one counseling theory that will guide my practice in psychotherapy.

Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing

This nursing theory was developed in 1976 by sister Callista Roy. She views people as a biopsychosocial adaptive system that is in constant interaction with an internal and external environment (Philips & Harris, 2014). She explains that when people respond in a positive way to environmental changes, adaptation occurs. According to Roy’s adaptive model, nurses are to promote adaptation for individuals and groups by following four adaptive models which she explains to be physiologic needs, self-concept, role function and interdependence ( Petiprin, 2016). The process of adaptation makes use of acquired and innate abilities and this nursing theory describes a person’s ability to adapt as a function of the stimulation being exposed to and their level of adaptation. This adaptation acquired by the individual will enable them to live life as an integrated whole being (Philips & Harris, 2014). Because this model describes humans individually and in groups as a collection of adaptive systems that work together to enhance personal and environmental transformation, this will be a perfect model for my practicum experience.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy(REBT)

This counseling theory was first created by Albert Ellis and was the original cognitive behavior therapy ( Turner, 2016). This theory uses the ABCDE model to describe how emotions are created by rational or irrational beliefs. In the ABCDE model, a negative activating circumstance (A) leads to individuals developing rational or irrational beliefs (B) which then elicits emotional, cognitive and behavioral consequences (C). The irrational beliefs created can further lead to secondary consequences like maladaptive behaviors. Disputing irrational beliefs (D) and understanding behaviors that are more efficient (E) is encouraged with the use of REBT. This choice-oriented theory is based on the postulation that humans are complex and fluid and their emotions are not shaped by external circumstances but that the individual views and perceptions are what influence their emotions (Ellis, 2017). This counseling theory works to bring about a lasting change in individuals by teaching relapse prevention methods and replacing irrational beliefs with rational thoughts and perceptions about one’s self (Turner, 2016).

Practicum Goals and Objectives

My goals and objectives for this NURS 6650 experience align with the goals and objectives that have been set up by Walden university for the completion of this course.

My goals are to merge the knowledge gained in the online classroom with the skills being learned in the clinical aspect of family and group therapy. To familiarize my self and learn better ways to effectively communicate with my clients and to broaden my knowledge of various counseling theories and therapies that are best used in family and group settings.

My Objectives for this course will be to adequately equip myself to be able to lead groups in the clinical setting, use appropriate communication and terms when leading groups and to effectively assess resources needed throughout this course.

Timeline of Practicum Activities

Week Learning Objectives
1 Getting familiarized with the clinical site and learning about ethical and legal considerations in family and group counseling.
2 Building my skills in evaluating and performing a comprehensive health assessment.
3 Working on clinical supervision skills.
4 Build supportive group psychotherapy skills and comparing structural family therapy to strategic family therapy, while continuing to build therapeutic rapport with clients.
5 Building skills to adequately use CBT in group and family settings.
6 Applying current literature to my practicum practice.
7 Learn about the stages of group formation.
8 Continue to gain insight into the use of CBT in groups.
9 Work on the different group psychotherapeutic approaches designed for counseling addiction.
10 Conclude my clinical hours with being able to effectively lead a group therapy.
11 Complete all the requirements needed for this course including the final exam.


Borghi, A. M., & Fini, C. (2019). Theories and explanations in psychology. Frontiers in psychology10, 958.

Ellis, D. J. (2017). Rational emotive behavior therapy and individual psychology. The Journal of Individual Psychology73(4), 272–282.

Ellis, A., & Joffe Ellis, D. (2019). The therapy process: Primary change mechanisms. In Rational emotive behavior therapy. 2nd ed. (pp. 43–124). American Psychological Association.

Petiprin, A. (2016). Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing. Retrieved March 8, 2020, from

Phillips, K. D., & Harris, R. (2014). Roy’s adaptation model in nursing practice. Nursing Theory Utilization and Application. 5th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby, 263-86.

Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.

Turner, M. J. (2016). Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes. Frontiers in Psychology7.

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