Sustainable tourism is being able to the deliver positive environmental, social, and economical results with thought to the needs of the visitors, host community and surroundings. Sustainability as defined in the Brundtland commission report it states as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the needs of the future generations to meet their needs”. For example, the small business are starting to practices sustainability principles by changing to renewable energy sources, reducing use of paper and recycling more.
As a result, the concept of sustainability addresses the aspects of “triple bottom line” meaning the balance of societies, economy and the environment are described by (Bonevac, 2010). According to the World Tourism Organization, “sustainable tourism means meeting the needs of the present tourist and host regions while protecting and enhancing the opportunity for the future”. Instead of just being a product, sustainable tourism is a philosophy that underpins all tourism actions (Owens, Is there a Meaningful Definition of Sustainability? , 2003).
To all tourism development and management, it is a fundamental concept instead of being an add-on factor. The foremost aim of sustainable tourism is to maintain the economic and social return of tourism development while reducing or justifying the unattractive impacts on the natural, historic, cultural or social environment (Governemnt, 2009). The stated objectives attained by matching the needs of tourists with those of the destination. Sustainable tourism is an industry, which challenges to make a little impact on the environment and the local culture, though helping to produce income, employment and the preservation of local ecology.
Hence, responsible tourism is both cost-effectively and culturally responsive, meaning have minimum impact on the environment and culture of the host community (Group, 2007). Scotland Tourism Organization has defined sustainable tourism as “tourism committed to generating a low impact on the surrounding environment and community by acting responsibly while generating income and employment for the local economy and aiding social cohesion” (Organisation v. s. , 2013).
Scotland Sustainable tourism aspires to guarantee that economic development in terms of encouraging experience for each one involved local community, Tourism Companies and visitors. In practice, sustainable tourism means greener transport, given that transport is innermost to tourism; however it also put pressure on our natural resources and contributes to our worldwide environment impacts. Procedures like cheering visitors to utilize communal transport, and advance in cleaner forms of transport will assist in this area (Organisation v. . , 2013).
Regular and environmental strains a more even stretch of visitors lessens pressures on the natural and built environment and on communities, and capitalizes on the financial payback. Scotland Tourism Organization modifies its advertising drive to persuade a stretch of visitors throughout the year and around state (Organisation v. s. , 2013). For example, “surprise yourself”. There is necessary to work with the public, private and independent sectors to determine the environmental and social impacts of tourism.
These guarantees that tourism expansion carries a encouraging experience for home people, tourism companies and the tourist themselves (Organisation v. s. , 2013). Green accommodation is one in that all room offers lessens their misuse, energy and water use. The green Tourism Business Scheme persuades businesses to trim down their environmental impacts. The scheme is one of the largest of its land in Europe with over 800 Scottish members (Organisation v. s. , 2013).
However, any tourism industry can take advantage from flattering more sustainable through safeguarding the very features on which tourism depends; taking a sustainable move to tourism expansion is the only way to guarantee long-term tourism expansion in the South Pacific (Organisation v. s. , 2013). The success of tourism in any country depends on taking care of the environmental or social impacts of tourism development. The visitors benefit from sustainable move to tourism throughout from enhanced relates with local communities, a tall value tourism experiences and a natural and fabricated environment.
Thus, by fetching a sustainable tourism destination will provide the South Pacific Tourism Businesses a cutthroat frame by producing community assistance for tourism; attaining value savings and designing innovative marketing prospect. As the tourism industry develop in as many regions and countries, it generates noteworthy impact on the consumption pattern, natural resources, pollution and social systems (Organisation v. s. , 2013). For the industry to survive as a whole it is vital to understand and interpret the need sustainable and responsible planning and management.
To begin with, education and collaborative partnership are approaches that can assist destinations attain more sustainable tourism. The whole idea of sustainability based on the association through environmental, ecologically and socially responsible tourism. Partnerships with local communities through rural community gathering before and during development are needed in order to let alone the frequent divergence between conservation initiatives and traditional resources users (Billington, Carter, & Kayamba, 2008).
The departments from the government can collaborate with the resource owners to develops and negotiate over the investment on proposal (English National Park Authorities Association, 2009). For example, the Chumbe Island Coral Park is a good example of collaborate partnership, which was developed to sustain the natural beauty and attractions of the island (English National Park Authorities Association, 2009). Chumbe Island is located in the Indian Ocean channel of the coast of the semi autonomous region of Zanzibar (English National Park Authorities Association, 2009).
The person responsible for the project on the natural park at Chumbe Island was (David, 2011). During her work life, (David, 2011) experience the need for the conservation and sustaining of the natural flora and fauna. (David, 2011) developed an innovative approach to protect marine conservation combined with tourism development through the sustainable and multilevel partnership approach to promote successful marine park management, awareness of marine conservation and sustainable tourism management. David, 2011) Develop a small marine park that would help consume a unspoiled coral reef, offer environmental education for both the locals and the foreign visitors and generate management fund through authentic ecotourism. Thus, the need for the park at Chumbe Island arose due to improper aid and the government in the country noted conservation programs. Hence, the collaborative partnership arose to sustain the nature conservation of Tanzania for the future (English National Park Authorities Association, 2009).
Secondly, the partnership approach deals with the local communities because they are the essential people who are the resource owners (Governemnt, 2009). Engaging the local community in the environmental education on sustainability through workshops and seminars will increase their concerns for the global issues such as climate change (Clark, 2013). In addition, collaboration with NGO has to hold workshops with the angler’s, to engage them in sustainable fishing practices and conservation of the resources (David, 2011).
Thus, the young and the old generation in the area is to be informed about sustainable fishing practices, laws and regulation regarding fishing practices and marine conservation area and the benefits of marine protected areas (Ki-Hoon & Ball, 2003). All this environmental awareness, education and training initiative with the community are to provide skill development on sustainable tourism (Group, 2007). The scale of growth of the tourism industry In the South Pacific is rapidly and that the environmental and social, economic impacts of it cannot be overlooked (Azam & Sarker, 2011).
This has caused the Pacific Region to find ways in which the industries could be made more sustainable. The industry is more sustainable through minimizing resource use and waste production (Othman, 2004). For the sustainability of tourism, water is the major issue for concern. For example, a tourist in a hotels uses on standard one third of more water per day than a local inhabitant uses and put severe restriction on local supply (Othman, 2004). Activities such as golf course, artificial snow ski’ resorts are in demand of water.
For small and medium sized business, sustainability thought of an expensive and difficult idea (Billington, Carter, & Kayamba, 2008). Most of the dominating tourism industries in the South Pacific have not actively engaged in government activities that encourages that adoption of sustainability practices (David, 2011). There are a number of barriers identified by the researchers that hinds implementing sustainability practices in South Pacific tourism businesses including the financial crisis for implementation, the labor insecurity of being certified, lack of government and industry support the technical nature of information forums.
Hence are a number of actions businesses could undertake to improve environmental performance (Azam & Sarker, 2011). Activities’ relating to efficient resources use and waste management includes minimizing energy consumption, for example using open ventilation instead of air-conditioning and heaters encouraging the use of renewable sources and improved technology also Getting involved in accreditation programs (Owens, Is there a Meaningful Definition of Sustainability? 2003). There is a need to promote and facilitate the reduction, reuse and recycling of materials and water quality including the efficient treatment of sewerage, avoiding discharge into marine and rivers (Organisation, 2005).
For example, in Australia the Australian formula 1 ING grand Prix Corporation, which works with environmental packaging and waste recycling partner to minimize the impact of the race on the environment? Billington, Carter, & Kayamba, 2008) Thus, by minimizing waste use, energy use and waste production, businesses can reduce their impact on the environment and achieve cost savings (Ki-Hoon & Ball, 2003). Furthermore, the conserving and giving value to natural and cultural heritage is of critical importance’s, in order to enhance the quality of life of local communities through tourism, and connect the people in is scheduling and management (Organisation, 2005). The growing awareness’s and generating direct and indirect support for conservation is the key role played by the tourism industry (Group, 2007).
The generation of economic propensity for the tourism industry is to provide with quality natural and cultural heritage (Azam & Sarker, 2011). This would ensure the long-term competitiveness, viability and the prosperity of tourism enterprises and destinations and the quality of life of local communities and to the visitor experience by providing a safe, satisfying and fulfilling experience to the visitors available to all without discrimination by gender, race, religion, disability or in other ways (Organisation, 2005).
Areas that are of importance to tourism natural and cultural includes the natural landscapes quality and variety, man-made cultural landscapes, heritage and historic sites, the flora and fauna diversity, local uniqueness such as art, crafts, cuisine, language events and festivals (Organisation, 2005). Thus, to address these issues listed above relevant action like being more prepared to use the tourism argument as to fund the prevention of nature and culture and to prevent damaging change (Clark, 2013).
Also strengthening the relationship between protected area and local tourism interest, within the context of a sustainable tourism strategy and action plan would lead the South Pacific to be more sustainable (Organisation v. s. , 2013). Sustainable development is holistic in nature; therefore, it requires management of policies and coordination of action between sectors (Othman, 2004). To control the impact of tourism initiated by environmental or developmental strategies and policies legislation and regulations are necessary (Governemnt, 2009).
Appropriate strategies or sets of policies for specific aspects of tourism were developed. For example, in Bulgaria the separate strategy for ecotourism, which reflects the sustainability principles? (Bonevac, 2010) This initiative can also be taken by the local Ministry of Environment of Tourism to integrate the strategy in terms of regulations (David, 2011). In coordinating and ensuring success of this specific sub-sector, such regulations and legislations can be very helpful. This can be very helpful in demonstrating processes and formulating policies that could be modified more widely in tourism (Ki-Hoon & Ball, 2003).
Strategy and policies must be developed and implemented at both local and national level in order to achieve effective result. Most countries in the South Pacific are in the process of decentralizing their political and administrative structures so local decision-making is the vital aspect toward sustainability development (English National Park Authorities Association, 2009). An integrated approach to the development and management of tourism is within local destinations, is recognized as the most successful direction to sustainable tourism (Governemnt, 2009).
Thus, it is vital for the national and local strategies to be corresponding but these two variable in tourism strategies vary in terms of national tourism strategies relates to the national tourism vision of the overall position and direction (Organisation v. s. , 2013). While local tourism strategies relates to the holistic of the local destinations in areas such as local objectives and priorities, local resource opportunity and constraints and many more (David, 2011).
Hence, the identifying of policies and instruments to create the enabling environment for sustainable tourism is more of national strategy while the determining of what happens on ground is more of local strategies (Governemnt, 2009). Both the national and local tourism strategies are required for sustainable tourism to embrace the principles of sustainable development and both strategies are reliable and commonly reinforcing (Othman, 2004). Finally, the command control instrument allows government to exert strict control over certain aspects of development and operation, backed by legislation (Organisation, 2005).
Legislation, regulation and licensing are the interdependent tools that can be used to strengthen sustainability by setting out requirements that are compulsory and enforceable and which lead to sanctions and penalties if they not met (Billington, Carter, & Kayamba, 2008). The process of checking and signaling compliance with regulations or otherwise identified obligatory standards; assigning permission to operate is called licensing (Organisation, 2005). To control aspects of business development and operations and to influence people’s behavior government are in a position to apply laws, regulations and penalties.
These legislation and regulations must be applied when the governments believes that it is necessary to do so (Governemnt, 2009). Thus, for regulations to be successful, it has to be relevant, clear, practicable in terms of compliance and capable of being enforced. In order the tourism industry to be more sustainable the laws and legislations should enable and support the sustainability of tourism and give authority to act (Billington, Carter, & Kayamba, 2008). It should also seek to raise sustainability performance above such standards through other means, which would also stimulate personal commitment towards continual improvement.
For example, in the government of Fiji builds up a (EIA) environmental Impact Assessment regulation, which stated that for any company or hotel with an EIA reports in Fiji, has to provide the Fiji Government with an EIA report of the development to progress (Turnbull, 2003). There are a number of areas in which laws and regulations can be implemented to attain more sustainable tourism industry and that includes operation, management and development which are controlled by this legislation to protect the environment, communities, culture and heritage, visitor experience and the business as a whole (Turnbull, 2003).
The purpose of government intervention in the sector as law provides a vehicle for underpinning sustainability. These legislations can also provide the basis for enabling the control and licensing of activities specific to the tourism sector and for the undertaking to certain action to support tourism development (Organisation v. s. , 2013). To conclude, sustainable tourism is all about forecasting of long-term, working together examining on results and adaptive to change and the most effective thing is communication to put across the message of sustainable tourism.
It is the duty of the private, public and independent sector to acquire leadership role in tackle the challenge of this sector. The degree at which the tourism industry is increasing in the South Pacific forecasts that the environmental and social impacts of tourism cannot be disregarded. Traditionally, a number of sustainable tourism activities has been carried out and is supported by the national Tourism Organization of the South Pacific countries.
However, there are a number of challenges that still stay alive and need attention in order to be more sustainable tourism industry, like climate change. In order to tackle these challenges and grip future sustainable opportunities in a harmonized manner, research and development done in these South Pacific countries to handle these issues through sustainable tourism strategy plan. The tourism strategies plans would assist the tourism industry to change unenthusiastic community discernment of the industry and achieve economic benefits through sustainable practices.
It believed that it would egg on business to hold sustainable tourism practices in order to meet consumers demand and to improve business performance. Sustainable tourism should be broadcasted and celebrated amongst tourists, host communities and the participants in the industry move the industry toward sustainability. Nevertheless, the commitment to change and improve must be authentic and supported on well-established procedures and actions that is to be achieved.
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